WHAT IS DIABETES ?
Diabetes is group of metabolic diseases wherein a person has high blood glucose either because insulin(a hormone secreted by pancreas,responsible for converting sugars from food into energy ) production is inadequate or because the body’s cells are not responding properly to insulin , or both.Diabetes is a serious complex condition in which can affect the entire body. It requires daily selfcare and if complications develop diabetes can significantly affect quality of life and life expectancy.Patients with high blood sugar will experience frequent urination ,increased thirst and increased hunger.
Although there is currently no cure for diabetes , by learning about the condition and effectively managing it , you can lead a healthy long and enjoyable life. There are three types of diabetes , all of them equally complex and serious, namely type 1 , type 2 and gestational diabetes.
WHAT CAUSES DIFFERENT TYPES OF DIABETES ?
TYPE- 1 DIABETES:
This type of Diabetes is caused because the Beta cells of the pancreas that produce insulin are killed by the persons own immunity system,which subsequently reduces (or stops)the insulin production thus making the body not being able to convert glucose from food into energy which results into high blood glucose levels.
TYPE -2 DIABETES:
Despite the fact that this type is also known as adult-onset diabetes, this can be found in people of any age ,even children.Type 2 diabetes mostly occurs in inactive and overweight people. When the fat, muscle and liver cells resist to use insulin to carry glucose to body’s cells to use for energy, in such condition body needs more insulin. In the beginning , pancreas fulfills the added demand but in the long term when pancreas can no longer produce enough insulin causing you type 2 diabetes.
During pregnancy, All women make hormones that can lead to insulin resistance .If the pancreas is not able to keep up to higher insulin demands , a woman develops gestational diabetes. Women who gain a lot of weight during pregnancy or who were already obese have higher chances to develop this kind of diabetes.Most women get rid of gestational diabetes after pregnancy but they are more likely to suffer type 2 diabetes later in their lives.
Distinct from the fact that there are no such medicines invented to cure diabetes yet, a diabetic can lead a happy, healthy and long life by controlling blood sugar levels by the means of having a good diabetic diet. There are various myths attached to the diabetes diets such as totally avoiding sugar, but that is not the truth until you monitor the amount taken.Proper exercise and balanced diet is the key to diabetes control.
Diabetologist, Dr . Sanjiv Bhambani of Moolchand Medcity suggests,”a diabetic diet should be high on fibre, must contain milk without cream, buttermilk , fresh seasonal fruits,green vegetables, etc.”
Adequate and balanced amounts of proteins ,carbohydrates and fats will help you manage your blood sugar levels.A diabetic should have more of complex carbohydrates such as brown rice ,whole wheat or whole grain foods.
According to Rekha Sharma, President and Director of Indian Diabetic Association ,some major diabetes diet pointers are :
- High fibre foods: Whole grains, oats, channa atta , millets etc and vegetables high in fibre such broccoli, beans, peas, leafy vegetables etc should be added to meals.
- Milk has right combination of carbs and proteins and thus helps control blood sugar levels.
- Pulses have a lesser effect on blood sugar levels than most other carbohydrate containing foods so should be included in a diabetics’ diet.
- Good fats:such as omega 3 and monounsaturated fats (MUFA).
- Fruits: high in fibre such as papaya, apple , orange, pear, guava ,should be consumed. mango ,chiku , banana , and grapes should be avoided for their high levels of sugar.
Diabetic Retinopathy also known as diabetic eye disease is caused when a person’s diabetes affects his/her retina of the eye .This is so severe that it may eventually lead to blindness.This is an ocular manifestation of diabetes. An ocular manifestation of a systemic disease is an eye condition where damage to the vision is caused directly or indirectly from a disease process in another part of the body.
Diabetic Retinopathy affects upto 80%of all patients who have had diabetes for 20 years or more. In spite of the fact that this disease is so common in diabetic patients ,researches have proved that new cases of diabetic retinopathy may be reduced if there is proper monitoring and vigilant treatment for eyes.
Symptoms of Diabetic Retinopathy
In beginning, diabetic retinopathy may cause no symptoms or only mild vision problems. Eventually, it can lead to
- Spots or dark strings floating in your vision (floaters)
- Blurred vision
- Fluctuating vision
- Impaired color vision
- Dark or empty areas in your vision
- Vision loss
The condition can develop in anyone who has type 1 or type 2 diabetes. The longer you have diabetes and the less controlled your blood sugar is, the more likely you are to develop this eye complication.